International Surgery Journal Article Supports the Conclusion that Napoleon was Murdered
A recent article in International Surgery, the official journal of the International College of Surgeons, details the scientific discovery that Napoleon Bonaparte was poisoned with mineral arsenic, which is the most toxic of all arsenics and better known as rat poison.
The Fall edition (Volume 92, Number 5) article titled "Napoleon Bonaparte Really Was Murdered. The Weapon: Rat Poison," written by John H. Fournier, M.D., explains how a 50 year debate as to the cause of Napoleon's death was put to rest when Ben Weider and Sten Forshufvud showed that Napoleon "demonstrated the majority of the signs of chronic arsenical poisoning." Weider is a Canadian businessman and the president of the International Napoleonic Society. Forshufvud is a Swedish dentist with an interest in toxicology. Before their findings, it was commonly thought that Napoleon died from cancer.
Nuclear science and a sample of Napoleon's hair have backed Weider and Forshufvud's conclusion. As Fournier describes in the International Surgery article, Britain's Harwell Nuclear Laboratory ran tests on a hair sample in the 1960s, which were also repeated in 1995 with different, authenticated hair samples. The results were similar in both studies: Napoleon was murdered with arsenic poisoning. Despite the results of these tests, a debate continued in historical communities as to whether Napoleon really was murdered.
The International College of Surgeons is one of the most respected colleges of its kind and its main representative, Dr. Nadey Hakim of England, believes that the scientific test organized by Dr. Kintz is scientifically sound and acceptable.
Dr. Fournier, a respected medical specialist in the United States, after having evaluated all the tests that have been made about the analysis of Napoleon's hair, accepts, supports and agrees with the analysis and scientific work done by Dr. Kintz.
Weider is pleased that his discovery is detailed in the International Surgery article. "I am thrilled that finally the poisoning of the Emperor Napoleon has been accepted by the world's leading and most important International College of Surgeons," Weider says. "To prove that Napoleon was poisoned, I worked with Dr. Forshufvud and had Napoleon's hair analyzed by The Harwell Nuclear Research Laboratory in London, England, the FBI in Washington, D.C., an analysis from Scotland Yard in London, and finally the latest scientific research and evaluations by the world's leading forensic toxicologist Dr. Pascal Kintz."
"At last, the truth about Napoleon's death will be accepted and known throughout the world," Weider says.
Sarah Keeney, Savas Beatie LLC Marketing Director
About Ben Weider:
Doctor Ben Weider, a businessman of world-wide stature, built an industrial empire at the head of the International Federation of Body Building, which he founded and over which he presided for decades. Dr. Weider is the author of many published works translated into forty languages, including The Murder of Napoleon (1986, 1999), with David Hapgood, which provided scientific proof of the poisoning of the Emperor at Saint Helena. In 1995 Dr. Weider founded The International Napoleonic Society (INS), a non-profit association based in Montreal, to promote the study of the Napoleonic Era in accordance with proper academic standards and publish the journal Napoleonic Scholarship. France awarded Dr. Weider the distinction of chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 2002. His most recent book The Wars Against Napoleon: Debunking the Myth of the Napoleonic Wars (Savas Beatie, 2008) was co-authored with General Michel Franceschi.