From Malmaison to Aix: Napoleon’s Last Days in France
By J. David Markham

When Napoleon returned to Paris after Waterloo, it soon became clear that he had to leave not only Paris but also France. But where to go and how to get there? This paper explores the political upheaval that dominated France and the difficult and delicate position of Napoleon as he made his way toward what appeared to be his new life in the United States. Using memoirs and documents, this paper illustrates Napoleon’s state of mind as well as the external political factors that eventually led him to surrender to the British.


J. David Markham is President of the International Napoleonic Society and President Emeritus of the Napoleonic Historical Society. He has written, edited and/or contributed to ten books on Napoleon, appeared in several television documentaries, and does the Napoleon 101 podcast that has over 30,000 listeners. In 2009, David was awarded the Médaille d’or du Rayonnement Culturel (Gold Medal for Cultural Radiance) by La Renaissance française (an international French cultural organization with the high patronage of the French President and the ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior, Defense and National Education).